Just a very lovely antique treen barrel shaped box, 19th c. British I believe and I'd guess made of boxwood. Perhaps it once held a glass bottle inside (perhaps for ink?) but I'm not entirely sure. Whatever the case, I've looked at quite a lot of treen containers and this is quite a nice example, with especially nice detailing on the lid.
2 7/8" t x 2" in diameter. Very good condition, no splits or chips or other issues; beautiful surface to the wood and a warm patina.